Videos from the BLAST VI Meeting

The movies on this page were presented at the 6th Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction (BLAST) Meeting held in January 2001 in Cuernavaca, Mexico. A review of the meeting has been published.

Bourret, R.B., Charon, N.W., Stock, A.M., and West, A.H. 2002. Bright lights, abundant operons – fluorescence and genomic technologies advance studies of bacterial locomotion and signal transduction: Review of the BLAST meeting, Cuernavaca, Mexico, 14 to 19 January 2001. J. Bacteriol. 184: 1-17.

The movies below are intended to accompany the review article. Citations throughout the article refer readers to videos that illustrate specific topics discussed at the meeting and reviewed in the article.

The videos and accompanying legends can be accessed either by scrolling down this page or by using the menu below. This web page can be best viewed using Netscape v. 4.7 or higher. Movie player software such as Quick Time v. 5 or higher or similar plug-in for your browser is required for viewing the animations. Movies can be viewed by clicking either on the video number or on the associated image. In most browsers, this will open a new window in which the movie will be loaded and played. This may require up to a minute depending on the speed of down loading. When finished with each movie, return to this main page using the browser's back button (or close the auxiliary window if one is opened).



 Video 1

 Video 2

 Video 3

 Video 4

 Video 5

 Video 6

 Video 7





Video 1 (2.0 Mb)

Borrelia burgdorferi motility. Periplasmic flagella are atttached at each cell end and form a continuous bundle that extends along the length of the cell. An outer membrane sheath surrounds the entire cell (not shown). The periplasmic flagella rotate CCW as viewed from behind, causing waves to be propageted along the length of the cell. Concomitantly, the cell rotates CCW about the cell axis, and CW about the body axis. The cell is a flat wave. Video provided by Nyles Charon, Stuart Goldstein and Kirk Moldoff.

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Video 2 (9.6 MB)

Flagella Assembly. This movie illustrates the assembly process of the bacterial flagellum from the motor embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane to the long helical filament whose rapid rotation propels the cell movement. The component proteins are transported through the narrow central channel to the distal end of the growing flagellum where the cap promotes their self-assembly. Video provided by Keiichi Namba.

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Video 3 (8.9 MB)

Saprospira grandis in Search of Prey. A hungry S. grandis attempts to trap swimming Salmonella cells (prey) bumping against it. Trapping is referred to as ixotropy (using stickiness, like fly-paper). Prey cells trapped on the S. grandis surface occasionally escape from the trap, unlike the entrapment of flies on a fly-paper. Video provided by Shin-Ichi Aizawa.


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Video 4 (11.5 MB)

Saprospira grandis Digesting Prey. A full S. grandis after feeding is shown satisfactorily digesting a big ball of prey cells and themselves. In a week or so, the ball disappears leaving a small number of newly born S. grandis cells. Video provided by Shin-Ichi Aizawa.

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Video 5 (8.0 MB)

Mycoplasma mobile Gliding Behavior. A M. mobile cell was attached to a bead of 2.2 micrometers diameter by a polyclonal antibody raised against surface molecules. The cell and bead were exposed to slow viscous flow. M. mobile was oriented by the flow and glided upstream. Force was estimated using Stokes' law. Video provided by Makoto Miyata.

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Video 6 (3.0 Mb)

Paenibacillus Pattern Formation. Strains of Paenibacillus such as P. dendritiformis and P. vortex form complex patterns during colonial development on hard agar. The video clip illustrates three such patterns formed by tip-splitting, chiral and vortex morphotypes repsectively. In the case of the vortex the bacterial cells move in only one direction as they rotate around a common center in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Close inspection of the dynamics of patterning

led to the development of models which simulate the complex behavior and cooperative interactions of the cells. In addition to chemotaxis towards an energy source, the models predict the interplay between cell-generated forces such as short-range attractive and long-range chemorepulsive forces. The vortex model includes a third cell-generated signal which attracts the cells towards the center of rotating group of cells. Using such computer models simulations of colonial development by the three morphotypes can account for all of the observed characteristics of the complex pattern. Examples of the simulations are also presented in the model. The film was made by Eshel Ben-Jacob and subsequently edited by David Gutnick (who provided the film) and Varda Wexler of the Life Sciences multimedia service of Tel-Aviv University.

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Video 7 (5.4 Mb)

Rippling Within a Population of Myxococcus xanthus. During the first few hours of the developmental program that culminates in fruiting body formation, opposing, non-interfering traveling waves occur on the surface of a population of M. xanthus cells. The "ripples", represented as dark bands on the time-lapse video, are dense ridges of cells that travel at constant velocity. Video provided by Roy Welch and Dale Kaiser.

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Acknowledgments: This web page was created by the BLAST VI review committee (Bob Bourret, Nyles Charon, Ann Stock, and Ann West) with assistance from John Dowd. We thank S.-I. Aizawa, N. Charon, S. Goldstein, D. Gutnick, D. Kaiser, M. Miyata, K. Moldoff, K. Namba, and R. Welch for contributing the movie files presented on this page. (12/01/01)

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